Sigmund Freud is the father of modern psychology and one of the most influential psychologists of all time. Originally from Germany, Sigmund Freud immigrated to America in 1900 where he earned a doctorate in theoretical psychology at Columbia University. Throughout his career, Freud made a name for himself as an important figure in the field of psychoanalysis. Famous for his theories like the Oedipal Complex and The Addiction Formula, Freud had a profound impact on world mental health.
Sigmund Freud's most famous work, The Psychoanalytic Theory, remains important today because it forms the foundation for many related disciplines in psychology. Sigmund Freud claimed that all human beings are deeply affected by their unconscious drives. These drives, or instincts, include sexual desire, the need for food, clothing, security, power and others. When these drives are unfulfilled, the person will sink into depression and may try to self-harm.
According to Sigmund Freud, dreams indicate unconscious drives that dictate our behavior. For example, children who see a firefly swallowing a fly in their dreams will grow up with similar desires in their adult lives. Sigmund Freud believed that the subconscious Mind controls all human actions and emotions, including the ability to reason and learn. He also thought that people develop habits and routines based on their experiences and these habits become integral parts of their personalities. After observing his patients during his long tenure as a psychotherapist, Sigmund Freud came to the conclusion that there are three basic stages in the development of a personality.
These are childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Each stage has its own distinct personality and features. Each stage of development corresponds to a stage of development of the human nervous system. Freud believed that abnormal behavior and emotions were caused by the repressed drives and instincts of the unconscious Mind. He used the example of child soldiers in World War I who were abused by adults due to their instinctive psychological propensities.
Later on, he added the influence of the media, which shapes how people think, feel, and behave. These influences make people more susceptible to certain psychological illnesses. Freud believed that abnormal behavior is rooted in an individual's ability to handle the unconscious and parental instincts. His theories were deeply controversial and were rejected by a majority of American psychologists. However, in the last few decades, these ideas have gained much acceptance in mainstream psychological circles.
Over time, many revisionist scholars have accepted Freud's theories. In essence, these scholars believe that Freud's ideas are not based on facts, but are theories based on his deep personal experience and observations. However, critics of . . . . . . Freud's theory argue that his theories are still not proven. They maintain that Freud's theories still need to be subjected to extensive research and that more studies must be done in order to verify his theories.