Physiological Psychology is actually a sub-division of neuropsychology, which studies the neural processes of human behavior and perception through direct manipulation of the brain activities of human non-human animal subjects in laboratory conditions. Neuropsychologists believe that, our brains are primarily biological machines which have a basic programming to perform certain tasks. A neuroscientist attempts to make his own program into the biological programming and make it more efficient and effective by manipulating it with neurostimulation.
When a nerve bundle in our body becomes too much stimulated or affected by some external stimulus, it is known as “neurophysiological dysfunctions”. The human nervous system is composed of several layers of neurons, each layer having a specialized function. Each layer has two types of neurons which are active at the same time. These are called interneurons and somatic neurons.
The somatic cells are those neurons that are directly connected to the skeletal system and organs of the body like the muscles, heart, liver, etc. Interneurons are those neurons that are directly connected to the cerebral cortex and brain.
Neurophysiologists use sophisticated technologies to manipulate somatic cells. One of the most popular of them is neurostimulation. It is used in various clinical studies to help people suffering from depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders. Neurostimulation also is used to help people who are experiencing muscle spasms, muscle weakness, leg weakness, eye problem, chronic fatigue syndrome, and many other physical problems.
There are two different kinds of methods for neurostimulation: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDC). TMS uses a magnet and taser, while tDC uses a DC generator. These electrical stimulation techniques are used to reduce unwanted pain signals produced by the neurons, increase brain activity and reduce the level of excitability of neurons. Both tDC and TMS are applied directly to the somatic and interneuron neurons of the brain. This makes it possible to measure the state of these two neurons in real time.
These studies are used to understand the brain mechanism and how it can change in response to various situations and to study behavior in different ways. There are several theories that are based on this study. For example, one theory is called 'the default mode of operation theory' which states that certain situations, such . . . . . . as sleep, play a critical role in the state of a person's mind in terms of their behavioral responses. When a person is resting, he tends to think about his problems and thus his behavior. On the other hand, when a person is in a stressful situation, his thinking gets stimulated and he tends to act in a particular way.